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BODY-CENTERED ART ACTIVITY:
DEVELOPMENT OF LEXITHYMIC BODY AWARENESS IN OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY AND
COPYRIGHT by Georg Keller and by the German publishing house Verlag Modernes
Keller, Georg. Winter 2001. 'Body Centered Art Activity - Development of Lexithymic Body Awareness in Occupational Therapy and Professional Training,' The Canadian Art Therapy Association Journal, ISSN 0832-2473 (CATAJ), Volume 14 Number 2 pp.29-43.
Abstract: At first
this article is pointing out a close connection between body awareness and
emotional experience, especially illustrated by body-imageries. Then the term
‘Alexithymy’ and the relationships between medical treatment, body, body
scheme, body image, self image and psychotherapy are explained. Afterwards
there is a representation of different artistic activities, which can help
both students in education and alexithymic patients in therapy to perceive the
own body and own emotions clearer and to encounter their fellow men more
openly and empathically. Occupational therapy can become a bridge between
usual medical treatment and psychotherapy.
therapy, art therapy, education, alexithymy, body image, sensory awareness
The author is a German occupational therapy teacher.
German occupational therapists often apply artistic means in their work in
psychiatry and psychosomatic medicine. Some of them receive additional
training in art therapy. This article describes body centered art activity as
an incentive measure for starting a process of growing self-awareness in
short-term therapy with hospitalised patients or in education. Georg Keller,
Daniela Keller and Veronika Hofmann M.A./Vermont Coll. did the translation of
1. The outside physiognomy
versus the subjective body perception
Even though a person’s
outside appearance is usually rather stable, the internal body perception can
be completely different and does vary depending on momentary conditions.
patients draw themselves extremely small, opposite to their visible
constitution. Inquired about their drawings in a trusting atmosphere, some of
them will tell you they experience themselves small and lost in relation to
the large, distant world. Their artwork is expressing their subjective
. Thure von Uexküll introduced this term in the context of his
work on Psychotherapy of Psychosomatic diseases.
Children’s art as well as
expressive artwork from the 20th century often deal with this
subjective anatomy. Two examples are the art of Alberto Giacometti and of
Henry Moore (Fig.1). Reproductions of their work can inspire patients to
creatively express their internal body perceptions.
View on two open books: Books like these, with various reproductions of works of art by artists in particular those of the 20th century,
can help to find out
possibilities to express creatively, what you internally perceive
By making loose, expanding
movements one can become aware of one’s own bones and joints. Thereby one
can perceive oneself internally as thin and tall as Giacometti’s sculptures.
The artist himself stated, as follows, that these typical characteristics of
his art are originally rooted in specific childhood experiences: While my fingers knead the clay, I am on my way home from school on the
mountain trails of Stampa. My shoes are covered with mud. Surrounded by the
mountains and their undulating ravines, these make me want to climb up high on
steep rocks and to overcome abysses, to walk up stairs made out of slate,
flint or clouds.”
On the other hand, during
relaxation following slow, intense muscular activity, like after weightlifting,
or during Edmond Jacobson’s relaxation exercises, the internal body
perception is one of a warm, voluminous and heavy mass. Henri Moore’s
evoke comparable associations. It tells of how as a child Henri
Moore often gave a massage to the rheumatic dorsal muscles of his mother, that
impressed him very much.
2. Internal body sensations
and the perception of emotions
The perception of our own
emotions is rooted in the perception of our inner body, particularly in the
enteroception and the proprioception. The inner awareness of our own body
language and vegetative functions plays an important part in the understanding
of our emotions.
In most parts of the body
one can feel either tense or relaxed, depending on various emotions. You can
fearfully pull up your shoulders. Or you let your head hang forward down, when
you are resigned. Your heart will beat faster and stronger, when you are happy
or in love. But when you are sad, your chest may feel narrow, your heartbeat
becomes slow and your breathing becomes flat. Stress may strike your stomach
or increase the blood pressure. When you feel well, you may feel a warm flow
of energy from your heart going through your body. Problems can cause a
headache. This list could be continued almost endlessly.
In order to keep in touch
with oneself in daily life, it is essential to be psychophysically aware.
This includes distinguishing between real emotions and misleading
cognitive ideas about oneself. This ability is of great importance in
situations when the real feelings are more unpleasant than an easy illusion.
Healthy self-assertion and self-confidence arise out of realistic
psychophysical awareness. Moreover that awareness is a necessary basis for
gaining mutual satisfaction in empathic and understanding relationships.
Paintings and drawings can
make internal body experience visible. Many children produce these images
spontaneously and straightforwardly. Adult patients though who are not
familiar with art expression often need help in order to be able to
consciously perceive or to express their inner experience.
‘I have a headache’, M, 9;8,gouache
An interesting example of
child’s direct body expression shows Fig. 2. Prof. Max Kläger writes about
this headache picture of the 9-year-old boy:
“How to represent the feeling of suffering from a hot aching head? -
The child used colour and form to solve this problem. The pain embodies
itself in the fire flames, which concentrate on the head. The general
indisposition becomes clear by the dirty colour of the face, the white lips
and the dark and gloomy body and background."
experience of a 29 year-old female patient: ‘I
was beaten by my mother’
Figure 3 is an example of
how a drawing can indicate deficiencies in body awareness. It shows a
childhood reminiscence of a 29 year-old female patient. When she was young,
her mother, who was an alcoholic, had often beaten her. The drawing has many
things in common with children’s drawings (e.g. the objects are not
overlapping, front view of the figures, the characterisation of the figures by
attributes). The patient depicted holding a red bag and the mother with carpet
beater. The lower edge of the painting as base line and the emotional
perspective. This childless married female patient painted spontaneously. But
there are also some noticeable differences between her picture and children’s
First, she draws the figure
of herself and of her mother as stick figures with three legs! Children almost
always draw a shape for the trunk. Adults tend to use figures abstracted to
long thin lines especially in quick sketches. In more elaborated pictures
however stick figures may indicate a disturbance of body sensing, because the
artist seems to rather have an abstract idea of himself than being
psychophysically aware. Abuse in childhood can cause this lack of body
awareness. The patient’s stick figures in Fig.3 don’t express the same
vital intensity, self-assertion and self-confidence as the portrait of the
9-year-old boy (in figure 2).
3. Progressive relaxation
Jacobson’s progressive muscle relaxation technique enhances an intense
psychophysical awareness of diverse body sensations like warmth, coolness,
gravity, lightness, restriction, width, tension, relaxation, pulsation and
flow of energy...
The following drawings were
made after relaxation sessions. The instruction was as follows: “Please first outline (with a pencil on a sheet of paper)
the contour of your body. After that indicate by colours and symbolic forms (with
pastel crayons or other) your body sensations. You can mark parts of your
body-sensing-imagery for example with warm or cool colours or express tension,
relaxation or pain with different smooth or hectic lines or symbols. There are
no limits for your creativity. Later you can show me your drawing, and if you
want, we can talk about the sensations expressed in it.”
The products of this exercise (Fig. 4, 5 & 6) show the patients’
abilities to perceive their inner body sensations and to express these
creatively. The drawings also helped to assess the patients’ actual personal
condition as a basis for planning further therapy.
of a 22 year-old workaholic male patient
A very intelligent 22 years
old male student, who was hospitalised because of suicidal ideas as a
consequence of a workaholic personal attitude, painted Fig. 4. In his first
progressive muscle relaxation session he had such a lump in his throat, that
he could hardly exhale. At the end of the session his legs were circulated
warmly with blood indeed, but trembling and exhausted. The trembling sensation
in his legs is represented in his drawing by the black snaky lines.
Furthermore the drawing shows: the brooding thoughts in his head (blue
circular lines), his lips pressed together, a lack of awareness of the head
except for these unpleasant sensations, the lump in his throat, an intense
warmth in his abdominal wall, and an “aggressive
tingle“ in the anus (without any medical findings, like eczema or
haemorrhoids). He commented that the tingle increased when he was studying
hard for exams.)
of the same male student 16 days later
The same patient drew a
second body-sensing-imagery (Fig. 5) 16 days later, after further treatment
with progressive muscle relaxation and body-centered occupational therapy with
artistic means. In the meantime he succeeded in doing the progressive muscle
relaxation more softly and it was a meaningful experience for him, that less
effort can be more effective. He still achieved pleasant warmth in his legs,
but now without any disturbing trembling sensation. (No more black snaky lines
in the painting.) Now the anus sensation was pleasant. The abdominal wall was
warm and less tense. The lump in his throat was minor. Meanwhile he could also
feel his head relaxed, however not yet free of the brooding thoughts.
of a 30 year-old female patient with neurofibromatosis and interpersonal
Figure 6 shows the
body-sensing-imagery of a 30 year-old female patient with neurofibromatosis
and several interpersonal problems. She felt overstrained by her work as a
cashier in a supermarket and excluded by her colleagues. After a failed
relationship with a partner, she moved back in with her parents again. In her
painting she embodied herself very small and in an infant body scheme (oversized
head in relation to the other parts of body) in the middle of the sheet of
paper. She is dressed with a skirt. Later she supplemented in a childlike but
poor manner a landscape with radiating sun. Her figure seems to have no ground
under the feet. According to her explanation, the black object under the skirt was to
represent a “lump in the stomach”!
did not understand my question about the deep placement of her ‘stomach’. It was apparent for the therapist that the patient
was not ready to bring to consciousness whatever that black lump in the ‘stomach’
could mean. Anyway, the fact that this drawing was even made proves that she
was asking for help, even if words were not the appropriate of therapy this
time. Basically stimulating body centered occupational therapy could help her
to gradually become more aware of her body and herself. The second priority
was the establishment of a trusting therapeutic relationship as a basis for
her to eventually allow for any traumatic experiences to come closer to
Alexithymic patients are
unable to experience and to understand differences in their psychophysical
condition. They show little awareness of their own feelings, living in a
dissatisfied manner and unable to empathically relate to their fellowmen.
Instead they tend to adhere to social conventions and roles. They behave like
they feel they are expected to, rather than searching for possibilities in
living according to their own true feelings and needs in sympathetic consent
with their fellowmen. (In a lecture at the psychiatric hospital ‘Burghölzli’
in Zurich, the Swiss psychopathologist Prof. Ch. Scharfetter described these
persons ironically as “normopath”.
He said “normopaths” are opposite to psychopaths mostly socially
inconspicuous but nevertheless in need of treatment.) Their dissatisfied way
of life causes with time increasingly bad temper or resignation and often
produces psychosomatic disorders.
Despite the fact that alexithymia
is a psychosomatic term it is also applicable for psychiatric patients. - In
her book ‘Steps Toward Wholeness’ the physical and movement therapist
Sophie Krietsch remembers the typical schizophrenic symptomatology. In 1955
and still before the general introduction of major tranquilizers and
psychological treatment, Krietsch observed the typical expressionless faces
and slack bodies, sitting around unrelated to time, space and fellowmen;
several with machinelike stereotype movements. She describes that the faces
became more alive and the movements became more flowing when she initiated
contact with those patients with simplest means, such as throwing a ball. “The
relationship with the own body, which I discovered at last, became the main
point. Because I detected that the schizophrenic patient first must to some
extent accept his body as his own, before he himself actively can relate to
Many schizophrenics are
greatly distressed in their self-identity, and subsequently lack the abilities
for reality testing and for accepting and defending their personal limits and
their imagination they are convinced that their own thoughts are put in or
taken out by others. They experience themselves as fragmented and as being
directed and controlled, instead of oneself being the origin of the very own
feeling, thinking and activeness. The less a patient is aware of his body, the
more pathological ideas about himself and his relationships with his fellowmen
may achieve deceitful certainty. On the other hand, intensive body awareness
can have a self-asserting anti-psychotic effect.
5. About the relationships
between body, body scheme, body image, self image and therapy
The personal body awareness
is the starting point for body scheme, body image and at last self image to
· Body scheme describes the
autonomously functioning control and coordination of tactile,
vestibular and visual nervous stimulation. The body scheme develops during
childhood in particular by promotable motor and tactile experience and it is
the basis for the complex motor planning and motor coordination.
· Body image describes the
personal awareness of and attitude towards one’s body.
· Self image describes the
lot of conceptions about oneself, regarding personal abilities, resources,
characteristics, interests, moral opinions and aims.
The terms mentioned are so
closely connected to each other that a strict distinction is not absolutely
While the body is usually the object of medical treatment (pharmacotherapy,
operations, artificial limbs…), the self-image is the main subject of
psychotherapy (client-centered therapy, gestalt-therapy, art therapy, music
therapy…). Body-centered occupational therapy can in many ways serve as a
bridge between medicine and psychotherapy. (Scheme 1)
Occupational therapists can
enhance their patients’ psychophysical awareness by various therapeutic
sensory integration (J. Ayres)
and crafts challenging physical abilities
body-centered art expression
therapy can support the process of verbal psychotherapy. It can help patients to
find out more about essential connections between their feelings and events in
their lives, without being caught up in the poor cognitive illusions which can
hinder effective and satisfying modification of behavior. (Even in the verbal
client-centered therapy by C. Rogers the verbal mirroring of the body language
of a client is very important.)
6. Examples for activities
to stimulate body-image awareness through art
drawing done by a student
Making a silhouette drawing
is a simple initial project for patients who do not have the confidence to try
a more complex body-centered artwork. (Fig. 11) The silhouette can be easily
produced by a source of light shining on a sheet of paper, which is fixed on a
Second example: Traditional European carnival masks and costumes as a source
of inspiration for drawing
(‘underdog’) of a 22 year-old
The task to draw
carnival-masks can give good inspirations for patients to discover unconscious
parts of their personality. Figure 8 shows the mask drawing of the
intelligent, workaholic and suicidal young student, whose varied
body-sensing-imageries already shown above. This time he draws a kind of
maliciously idiotic grinning ‘brainless
underdog’, possibly an ‘alter
Ego’ or ‘shadow’ (‘Schatten’).
hospital he made friends with a mentally handicapped patient and whom he
spontaneously taught the board game ‘nine men’s morris’. Playing
together became a favourite pastime for the two. This unusual friendship at
this stage of therapy may have been part of positive shadow integration by the
Carnival-mask drawing of a
39-year-old female patient
To a 39 year old, infantile
helpless female patient suffering from schizoaffektive psychosis, who was
because of an episode of depression, it was suggested to draw a carnival mask.
She drew the upper half of a clown-figure (Fig. 9). In previous stages of
her disease she had heard internal voices telling her: ‘You
don’t belong to us. We don’t want you’ (In childhood she had grown up with her grandmother, who had
often said that to her.) From
the lack of arms and hands it was concluded in this case that it could be
helpful to offer this patient creative therapeutic activities which would
enable her to become psychophysically more aware especially of her arms and
hands and to experience herself active without being overstrained.
· Third example: Basic
stimulation of the hands
feeling hands (group work of few students)
The group work shown in
figure 10 also offered a various range of basic stimulation for arms and hands.
The instruction given was to create something that expressed: 'My hands touching, feeling, gripping, holding, and exploring their
environment’. Having a little walk in nature, the students were given
the chance to pick up varied tactile stimulating materials such as bark,
mosses, branches, leaves, earth, sand and stones in order to assemble them
afterwards together with clay.
· Fourth example:
Association to a stone-age mother-idol sculpted in clay
stone-age mother-idol sculpted in clay
A very satisfying project
is sculpting whole figures in clay. Creating a figure like the above stone age
mother-goddess with bare fingers can become an intense emotional experience,
because the profound power of the symbol combined with the tactile-kinesthetic
stimulation of the material provokes
emotional involvement and an intuitive identification with the object. (Fig.
11) (When deeply repressed body awareness comes back to life very quickly
after such projects, this can cause strong fears and acting out especially for
very ill patients. On the other hand, being able to look at a finished
sculpture, can with time be an important contribution to self-confidence,
self-assertion and the ability to gradually integrate a fuller body awareness.)
· Fifth example:
school class with their papier-mâché figures
Papier-mâché is a very
good material for large sculptures. Figure 12 shows a school class with
papier-mâché figures, which were formed in partner-interaction in the first
term of their professional training. The students are usually very motivated
to do these paste-paper-figures. The partner-interaction enables the students
to become more intimate with each other in a playful manner at the beginning
of the professional training. Fascinating is the diversity of varied figures.
Subsequent to the manufacturing of the paste-paper-figures all students of the
class created together a humorous, fictitious description of each figure.
Considering also the physiognomy of the figures creative ideas to topics like
name, age, anamnesis, interests, abilities and disabilities were collected and
example: Spontaneous figurative drawing
‚Black man’ (epileptic aura painted by
a young man)
Figure 13 shows a “black
man” painted by a 27 year old male, who suffered from epileptic grand
mal seizures caused by an accident several years ago causing brain injury.
That “black man” had repeatedly appeared in his epileptic aura before
the seizures. He had also seen this “black
man” standing on the top right next to him before his recent seizure.
The figure had always been dressed in
black leather with a coat of chain mail. Remarkable are the missing
feet and hands in the drawing, giving the impression of a child wearing
oversize clothes. The still very muscular patient explained that he had been
much more muscular some years ago. In the vocational school he had been the
best of his class, because he had learned intensively and practised intense
bodybuilding. However, he also was a heavy drinker and had a reputation among
his peers for being aggressive. He also told me further, how his father had
always been a very hardworking man. Each time after an epileptic attack the
patient felt helpless and inferior and was even ashamed to ask someone to
drive him to hospital, since due to his epilepsy he was forbidden to drive
In this case, the drawing
served as a basis for the patient to talk about his feelings of inadequacy.
This helped him in his psychotherapy to integrate his fear and to start
developing new competencies and a new personal identity in accordance with his
Seventh example: Art reproductions as a source of inspiration
for art reproductions that may be inspiring
As most O.T. patients are
inexperienced in doing art and do not dare yet to paint freely, a collection
of art reproductions can be inspiring. It is important that patients can
select from a large variety so that they have a chance to find something that
is appealing to them in their momentary personal condition. The offered
inspirational copies should not be too difficult concerning painting technique
and should not be done in a photo-realistic way of painting but rather inspire
free expression of internal experience. The
patient should be aware that exact copying is not the task, but rather
free creative dealing with the selected picture (e.g. doing a completion tasks
or developing own imagery that is only inspired by the copy).
picture (made by a student)
Eighth example: Footprint-island
Footprint- Island (made by
Figure 16 shows another
possibility for body-centered drawing. The own footprint was the starting
point for the subject: ‘What things
would I take with me on a lonesome island?’ Drawing
around the own’s foot with a pencil is activating and vestibular stimulating.
The own footprint in the drawing facilitates the identification with the
subject and prevents - by a kind of ‘grounding’
- a too cognitive approach to the task.
example: Abstract stained glass drawing
the subject: ‘tones, timbres,
vibrations and the chords of colours’ (made by a student)
drawing can be arranged in a body-centered way, by humming and singing tones
and vowels first, and thereby feeling the various vibrations in the own body.
Then one can assign light and dark colours to the various high and low vowels,
just the way one feels it. Finally one can paint a synaesthetic
about the subject: ‘tones, timbres, vibrations and the chords of colours’. (Fig.
17) This therapeutic measure stimulates respiration and body awareness and
helps to improve as well the sense of colour as the development of a
non-representational but emotional artistic expression.
example: Modelling plaster masks
modelling plaster masks
Figure 18 shows students
modelling plaster masks. Tactile stimulation is achieved by putting vaseline
and plaster on the face. While hardening, the plaster produces perceivable
warmth. The hardened plaster inhibits the movement of face muscles and
removing it effectuates liberation for mimic expression again. The modelling
of plaster masks requires a certain amount of self- confidence from
participants and a trusting and reliable atmosphere. If the model does not
feel safe, the brief ‘blindness’
and the inhibition of facial expression during the modelling of the plaster
may evoke too much anxiety.
with their painted plaster masks next to ceramic totem poles
Masks and faces can also be
modelled in clay. Figure 19 shows students with their painted plaster masks
next to ceramic totem poles. Sculpting masks and faces can improve the
awareness of nonverbal facial body language. Occasionally patients become
aware of their habitual facial expression and its emotional quality while
hiding behind a plaster-mask. This is a chance to integrate usually
unacknowledged feelings. A woman suffering from chronic migraine headaches,
who worked as a waiter in a restaurant, reported: “Without
regard to my real feelings, as a waitress I always have to show a friendly
smile to everybody. With an unhappy face I lack 50 Dollars tip a day”.
Finally, there are various
mime and acting techniques that can be used to facilitate the deepening of
therapeutic work with masks, disguises, made puppets and figures. As a
discussion of these would lead us beyond the limits of this article, these
techniques are described further in the author’s book. Many of these are
especially valuable for continuing education and self-awareness training of
Epilogue by Veronika Hofmann M.A./Vermont Coll.
I graduated in 82 at Vermont College as a Master of Arts in Art Therapy
and studied afterwards corporal mime and African dance in Montréal, Boston,
Munich, and Senegal.
In 87 I finally settled down in Munich with my private practise. Children
as well as adults suffering from psychiatric and psychosomatic diseases are
prescribed occupational therapy combined with art therapy with me by their G.P.
Being absorbed in my practical work with patients I’ve always been very
glad to read Georg Keller’s articles who has the talent to describe the
practical basics of our work in a very clear way. I find this often helpful
for reflection in the process of the own therapeutic work. I am glad he had
the initiative to offer this article to the journal and I was happy to help
him with the translation.
I hope this will be a starting point for professional exchange with our
American and Canadian colleagues. We would welcome any feedback or information
about comparable therapeutic work combining body-awareness-training and art
- Ayres, A.J.: Bausteine der kindlichen Entwicklung - Die Bedeutung der Integration der Sinne für die Entwicklung des Kindes; Springer Verlag, Berlin, Germany 1998
- Brooks, Charles: Erleben durch die Sinne (Sensory Awareness); Junfermann, Paderborn, Germany, 1997
- Jacobson, E.: Entspannung als Therapie. Progressive Relaxation in Therapie und Praxis; Pfeiffer, München, Germany, 1990
- Kayser, A., Kayser, E.: Körperschema, Körperbild, Objektbeziehungen – Die Bedeutung der Konzepte für die Ergotherapie; in: Zeitschrift Praxis Ergotherapie; Verlag Modernes Lernen, Dortmund, Germany; Heft 3/1997, page 144 – 161
- Keller, Georg: Körperzentriertes Gestalten und Ergotherapie - Unterricht und therapeutische Praxis; Dortmund, Germany: 2001
- Keller, Georg: Die Nutzung bildnerischer Mittel in der Ergotherapie, in: Zeitschrift Beschäftigungstherapie & Rehabilitation, Verlag Schulz-Kirchner, Idstein, Germany; Heft 3/97, page252ff
- Kläger, Max: Verständnis für Kinderkunst - Ordnungsprinzipien bildnerischen Handelns; Baltmannsweiler: Schneider-Verlag, Hohengehren, Germany, 1997
- Krietsch, S., Heuer, B.: Schritte zur Ganzheit – Bewegungstherapie mit schizophrenen Kranken; Gustav Fischer, Stuttgart, Germany, 1997
- Kubny, Beate: Körperorientierte Therapie – Ein gestalterischer Ansatz bei Depersonalisationsphänomenen; in: Zeitschrift Ergotherapie und Rehabilitation, Schulz-Kirchner-Verlag, Idstein, Germany; Heft 6/1993, page 414 - 418
- Petzold, H.: Psychotherapie & Körperdynamik – Verfahren psycho-physischer Bewegungs- und Körpertherapie; Junfermann-Verlag, Paderborn, Germany, 1977
- Scharfetter, Christian: Allgemeine Psychopathologie – Eine Einführung; Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart, Germany, 1976
- Uexküll et. al. (Hrsg.): Subjektive Anatomie - Theorie und Praxis körperbezogener Psychotherapie; Schattauer, Stuttgart, Germany, 1994
Im Weierfeld 14
 This article is a short form of the first chapter of the authors new German book. Keller, Georg: Körperzentriertes Gestalten und Ergotherapie; Verlag Modernes Lernen, Dortmund 2001; ISBN 3-8080-0471-1. This article was published first time in a German journal: Körperzentriertes Gestalten; in: Praxis Ergotherapie; Verlag Modernes Lernen, Dortmund, October 2000, page 322ff; ISSN 0932-9692
 For further information about 'subjective anatomy ' cf.: Uexküll et. al. (Hrsg.): Subjektive Anatomie - Theorie und Praxis körperbezogener Psychotherapie; Schattauer, Stuttgart, Germany, 1994
Giacometti quotation is quoted of the rear side of a calendar page of the
* 1898, † 1986, engl. sculptor and paintor.
 Kläger, Max: Verständnis für Kinderkunst - Ordnungsprinzipien bildnerischen Handelns; Baltmannsweiler: Schneider-Verlag, Hohengehren, Germany 1997; fig. 95, page 99
Kläger, Max; vide
supra, page 99
 Krietsch, S., Heuer, B.: Schritte zur Ganzheit – Bewegungstherapie mit schizophrenen Kranken; Gustav Fischer, Lübeck, Germany 1997; page 1ff.
 Confer also: Uexküll, Th. v., et.al. (Hrsg.): Psychosomatische Medizin; Urban & Schwarzenberg, München, Germany 1990; page 83ff.
 For further information cf.: Scharfetter, Christian: Allgemeine Psychopathologie – Eine Einführung; Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart, Germany 1976; page 36ff.
information cf. Kubny (6/1993), and Kayser (3/1997), and Uexkuell (1994)
= the other psychic identitiy. - In the complex psychology of C.G. Jung the
German terminus ‚Schatten’ (shaddow)
means inadequately integrarted (‚Ich-fremde’) parts of a person.
is the German name of that widespread parlor game.
* * *
My article ‘Body Centered Art Activity - Development of Lexithymic Body Awareness in Occupational Therapy and Professional Training’ is an English version of my German article 'Körperzentriertes Gestalten' (‘Praxis Ergotherapie’ ISSN 0932-9692, 13.Jg., Heft 5/2000, S. 322ff; Verlag Modernes Lernen, Dortmund). That article has been republished as chapter one of my German book Keller, Georg (2001). ‘Koerperzentriertes Gestalten und Ergotherapie - Unterricht und therapeutische Praxis’ (Dortmund: Verlag modernes Lernen (ISBN 3-8080-0471-1).
Keller, Georg. Winter 2001. 'Body Centered Art Activity - Development of Lexithymic Body Awareness in Occupational Therapy and Professional Training,' The Canadian Art Therapy Association Journal, ISSN 0832-2473 (CATAJ), Volume 14 Number 2 pp.29-43. Translated by Georg Keller, Daniela Keller and Veronica Hofmann (M.A./Vermont Coll.) from the article written in German and originally published in 'Praxis Ergotherapie'.
Painting like children do. - About the development
of painting in childhood, the characteristics of children’s
drawings and the relevance for art and for the therapy with adult patients.
Colour, sense of color,
painting gesture, visual thinking and their relevance for occupational therapy
with artistic means.
Noteworthy about mandalas. - Origin, meaning and utilization of mandalas in
therapy and education.
A practical therapeutic proceeding on how to develop a personal artistic
production in therapy.
Some practical information about the therapeutic offer of inspiring art copies.
The painting subject ‘On
the way’ in therapy with artistic means.
‘I myself as a tree’. - Trees as
painting subject in therapy with artistic means.
Paper, Papier-mâché and cardboard in education and therapy.
Short introduction in occupational therapy in child ad adolescent psychiatry.
Recommendations for a holistic objective in psychiatric occupational therapy.
Planning of occupational therapy in psychiatry. - Some concrete aspects.
Understanding life more profound by artistic means.
Body-Centered Art Activity (CATAJ)